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Online Library: Obesity and fatigue

The following pages provide an overview of the most recent research and clinical studies about the health benefits of micronutrients in fighting obesity and fatigue. This collection of scientific facts proves that anyone who privately or publicly questions the health value of micronutrients does not serve YOUR health, or the health of the people, but rather the multi-billion dollar investment 'business with disease' based on patented pharmaceutical drugs.

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Vitamin C status and perception of effort during exercise in obese adults adhering to a calorie-reduced diet.

Source: Nutrition. 2013 Jan;29(1):42-5.

Author: Huck CJ, Johnston CS, Beezhold BL, Swan PD.

Affiliation: Department of Health Promotion and Human Development, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA.

Abstract: Moderate energy restriction and exercise are recommended for effective weight loss. Obese individuals oxidize less fat and report a higher perceived exertion during exercise, characteristics that may negatively influence exercise behavior. Because vitamin C status has been linked to fatigability, the authors compared the effects of vitamin C supplementation on self-reported fatigue and on the respiratory exchange ratio and the Ratings of Perceived Exertion scale during moderate exercise in healthy obese adults adhering to a hypocaloric diet. 20 adults (4 men and 16 women) were stratified and randomly assigned to receive 500 mg of vitamin C (VC) or placebo (CON) daily for 4 weeks while adhering to a vitamin C-controlled, calorie-restricted diet. Feelings of general fatigue as assessed by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire were recorded on a separate day from the exercise session at weeks 0 and 4. Participants walked on a treadmill at an intensity of 50% predicted maximal oxygen consumption for 60 min at weeks 0 and 4, and heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and Ratings of Perceived Exertion were recorded. After 4 weeks, the two groups lost similar amounts of weight ( 4 kg), and the respiratory exchange ratio was not altered by group. Heart rate and the Ratings of Perceived Exertion during exercise were significantly decreased in the VC versus the CON group (-11 versus -3 beats/min, and -1.3 versus +0.1 U), and the general fatigue score was decreased 5.9 U for the VC group versus a 1.9 U increase for the CON group. Conclusion: These data provide preliminary evidence that vitamin C status may influence fatigue, heart rate, and perceptions of exertion during moderate exercise in obese individuals.

Effects of green tea supplementation on elements, total antioxidants, lipids, and glucose values in the serum of obese patients.


Author: Suliburska J, Bogdanski P, Szulinska M, Stepien M, Pupek-Musialik D, Jablecka A.

Affiliation: Department of Human Nutrition and Hygiene, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland

Abstract: The consumption of green tea has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. There have been some studies on the influence of green tea on the mineral status of obese subjects, but they have not yielded conclusive results. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of green tea extract on the mineral, body mass, lipid profile, glucose, and antioxidant status of obese patients. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Forty-six obese patients were randomly assigned to receive either 379 mg of green tea extract, or a placebo, daily for 3 months. At baseline, and after 3 months of treatment, the anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and total antioxidant status were assessed, as were the levels of plasma lipids, glucose, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper. The authors found that 3 months of green tea extract supplementation resulted in decreases in body mass index, waist circumference, and levels of total cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, and triglyceride. Increases in total antioxidant level and in zinc concentration in serum were also observed. Glucose and iron levels were lower in the green tea extract group than in the control, although HDL-cholesterol and magnesium were higher in the green tea extract group than in the placebo group. At baseline, a positive correlation was found between calcium and body mass index, as was a negative correlation between copper and triglycerides. After 3 months, a positive correlation between iron and body mass index and between magnesium and HDL-cholesterol, as well as a negative correlation between magnesium and glucose, were observed. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that green tea influences the body's mineral status. Moreover, the results of this study confirm the beneficial effects of green tea extract supplementation on body mass index, lipid profile, and total antioxidant status in patients with obesity.

Beneficial effects of catechin-rich green tea and inulin on the body composition of overweight adults.


Author: Yang HY, Yang SC, Chao JC, Chen JR.

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, I-Shou University, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, ROC.

Abstract: Green tea catechin has been proposed to have an anti-obesity effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effect of catechin-rich green tea in combination with inulin affects body weight and fat mass in obese and overweight adults. A total of thirty subjects were divided into a control group and an experimental group who received 650 ml tea or catechin-rich green tea plus inulin. A reduction of body weight and fat mass in the experimental group was found after 6 weeks, and no adverse effects were observed. After refraining from consumption for 2 weeks, sustained effects on body weight and fat mass were observed. The authors conclude that continuous intake of catechin-rich green tea in combination with inulin for at least 3 weeks may be beneficial for weight management.

Association between vitamin D levels and central adiposity in an eastern Africa outpatient clinical population.


Author: Theuri G, Kiplamai F

Affiliation: Wellness Associates; Lifestyle Diseases Intervention; Nairobi, Kenya ; Kenyatta University; Exercise Science; Nairobi, Kenya.

Abstract: Background Eastern Africa is a vast area straddling the Equator at roughly between latitude 18 North and 25 South of the Equator. This region enjoys overhead or near overhead sunshine throughout the year receiving an estimated 200-275 W/M2 of UVB annually. It is a region undergoing rapid socio-economic changes and thus impacting change in work habits and environment from the outdoors to the indoors. There however exists a dearth of vitamin D3 data on people in this region despite the recognition of vitamin D3 deficiency being a global epidemic. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of vitamin D3 and central obesity in this clinical population and their relationship if any. Methods Serum 25(OH)D, Waist circumference (WC) and Waist to Hip ratio (WHR) data on 182 outpatients attending a Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes was retrospectively analyzed by gender, age category and ethnicity. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in this clinical population in Eastern Africa, females had lower serum concentration, with the younger population having lower serum concentrations than the elderly. There was also a significant difference in serum levels when data was analyzed by ethnicity. Similarly central obesity was also highly prevalent in this population. The odds of being Vitamin D deficient was 3.3 times higher among individuals with elevated waist circumference than those with normal waist circumferences. Among the males, the odds of being Vitamin D deficient and having an elevated waist circumference was 6.8 times higher than for males with normal waist circumferences. This was however not observed among the females. Conclusion: Living on or close to the equator and having overhead or near overhead sunshine throughout the year in and of itself is not a guarantee of adequate serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

Vitamin D Insufficiency Is Associated with Abdominal Obesity in Urban Asian Indians Without Diabetes in North India


Author: Bhatt SP, et al.

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences , New Delhi, India.

Abstract: The researchers evaluated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT), and intraabdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) depots in Asian Indians without diabetes residing in north India. In this cross-sectional study (n=137; 74 males and 63 females; 18-60 years of age), anthropometric (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness at four sites) and biochemical (fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, and fasting insulin levels) assessments were done. Measurement of percentage body fat was done by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and areas of TAAT, SCAT and IAAT were measured at the L2-L3 intervertebral level by single-slice magnetic resonance imaging. Levels of 25(OH) D were measured by radioimmunoassay. Correlation analysis was used to assess relationships among clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles, areas of TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT, and 25(OH) D levels. The mean concentration of 25(OH) D was 40.58.6 ng/mL. Overall, 6.6% had vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), 87.6% had insufficiency (<30 ng/mL), and 5.8% had a sufficient level (>30 ng/mL). Levels of 25(OH) D did not correlate with demographic, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles or with abdominal fat depots (TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT). In the correlation regression model, 25(OH) D was associated with TAAT in obese subjects. Concluding, in obese urban Asian Indians without diabetes, higher values of total abdominal fat at the L2-L3 intervertebral level were associated with low 25(OH) D levels.