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Online Library: Multiple Sclerosis

The following pages provide an overview of the most recent research and clinical studies about the health benefits of micronutrients in fighting Multiple Sclerosis. This collection of scientific facts proves that anyone who privately or publicly questions the health value of micronutrients does not serve YOUR health, or the health of the people, but rather the multi-billion dollar investment 'business with disease' based on patented pharmaceutical drugs.

We encourage you to forward the link to this important online library on natural health – one of the largest ones in the world – to your friends. You may also print out the articles you find most important for your own health condition and share them with your doctor. Any responsibly acting health professional will be grateful to receive such science-based health education.

N-Acetylglucosamine inhibits T-Helper 1 (TH1)/T-Helper 17 (TH17) responses and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Source: The journal of biological chemistry 2011; doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.277814jbc.M111.277814

Author: Grigorian A, Araujo L, Naidu NN, Place DJ, Choudhury B and Demetriou M

Affiliation: Departments of Neurology, Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, Institute for Immunology, University of California, Irvine, California, and Glycotechnology Core Resource, University of California, San Diego, California

Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been linked to genetic and environmental dysregulation of Golgi N-glycosylation. The results of this study show that oral treatment of mice with the sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) enhances N-glycosylation, suppressing inflammatory T cell responses and an MS like disease when initiated after disease onset. Current treatments and emerging oral therapies for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are limited by effectiveness, cost and/or toxicity. Data suggest that oral GlcNAc may provide an inexpensive and non-toxic oral therapeutic agent for MS that directly targets an underlying molecular mechanism causal of disease. Conclusion: Disease progression is suppressed by GlcNAc.

A randomized trial of high-dose vitamin D2 in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Source: Neurology 2011; vol. 77 no. 17 1611-1618 Articles

Author: Stein MS, Liu Y, Gray OM, et al.

Affiliation: From the Royal Melbourne Hospital; Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Australia

Abstract: Objective: Higher latitude, lower ultraviolet exposure, and lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) correlate with higher multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence, relapse rate, and mortality. The authors therefore evaluated the effects of high-dose vitamin D2 (D2) in MS. Adults with clinically active relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) were randomized to 6 months' double-blind placebo-controlled high-dose vitamin D2, 6,000 IU capsules; dose adjusted empirically aiming for a serum 25OHD 130–175 nM. All received daily low-dose (1,000 IU) D2 to prevent deficiency. Brain MRIs were performed at baseline, 4, 5, and 6 months. Primary endpoints were the cumulative number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions and change in the total volume of T2 lesions. Secondary endpoints were Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and relapses. Conclusion: We did not find a therapeutic advantage in RRMS for high-dose D2 over low-dose D2 supplementation. This study provides Class I evidence that high-dose vitamin D2 (targeting 25OHD 130–175 nM), compared to low-dose supplementation (1,000 IU/d), and was not effective in reducing MRI lesions in patients with RRMS.

Low Serum Vitamin D Levels and Recurrent Inflammatory Spinal Cord Disease.

Source: Archives of Neurology 2011 Nov 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Author: Mealy MA, Newsome S, Greenberg BM, Wingerchuk D, Calabresi P, Levy M.

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Ms Mealy and Drs Newsome, Calabresi, and Levy); Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (Dr Greenberg); and Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (Dr Wingerchuk).

Abstract: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels have been associated with a higher risk of developing multiple sclerosis and increased relapse rates in patients with multiple sclerosis. As a sterol hormone involved in multiple immunologic pathways, vitamin D may play a role in preventing monophasic immune-mediated central nervous system attacks from developing into recurrent disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between low serum vitamin D levels and recurrent spinal cord disease. Therefore the authors performed a retrospective analysis at Johns Hopkins Transverse Myelitis Center, Baltimore, Maryland, evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 77 patients with monophasic and recurrent inflammatory diseases of the spinal cord. Main Outcome Measure was the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The outcome of the study: Vitamin D levels are significantly lower in patients who developed recurrent spinal cord disease, adjusting for season, age, sex, and race. Conclusion: This study provides a basis for a prospective trial of measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in these patient populations and assessing the influence of vitamin D supplementation on the frequency of relapses in those with recurrent inflammatory spinal cord disease.

Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis

A Comparative Study of 25 (OH) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Control Group in Isfahan, Iran

Source: Int J Prev Med. 2010; 1(3): 195-201

Author: Vahid Shaygannejad, MD,1,2 Khodayar Golabchi, MD,2 Sepehr Haghighi, MD,2 Hamed Dehghan, MD,1 and Amin Moshayedi, MD2

Affiliation: 1Department of Neurology, Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Isfahan Neuroscience Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. 2Student, Isfahan Neuroscience Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical

Abstract: In a case-control study involving 50 patients (42 females, 8 males) with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 50 matched controls, in an area of Iran with medium-to-high risk of MS despite high sun exposure, mean serum levels of 25(OH)D were significantly lower in patients with MS (48 nmol/L), as compared to controls (62 nmol/L). Furthermore, higher rates of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, and lower rates of having normal vitamin D levels were found in patients with MS as compared to controls. The authors state, "We found the same results as those studies carried out in Europe and North America; i.e., lower serum vitamin D level in MS patients than that in normal population, in spite of sufficient sun exposure in Isfahan region."

Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: an update.

Source: Nutr Rev. 2008;66(10 Suppl 2):135-138

Author: Cantorna MT.

Affiliation: The Center for Immunology and Infectious Disease, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.

Abstract: Observational studies document a positive relationship between vitamin D from the environment (sunlight or diet), circulating vitamin D status, and improved symptoms or prevention of multiple sclerosis (MS). Experimental animal models of MS reproduce the beneficial effects of vitamin D and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). The geographical distribution of MS can be explained by both the hygiene hypothesis and the vitamin D hypothesis. It therefore seems more likely that both hypotheses may be correct and that there are interactions between multiple environmental factors like vitamin D and the rate of infection that might explain the etiology of MS. The effects of vitamin D on the immune system and in the CNS have begun to be described and there is some information on the mechanisms underlying the effects of vitamin D in MS. A need exists for better understanding of the interactions of the environmental factors on MS, communication with the physicians treating MS patients as to the benefits of vitamin D, and clinical interventions with both vitamin D and analogs of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3).

Vitamin D as an Early Predictor of Multiple Sclerosis Activity and Progression


Author: Alberto Ascherio, MD, DrPH1; Kassandra L. Munger, ScD1; Rick White, MSc2; Karl Köchert, PhD3; Kelly Claire Simon, ScD1; Chris H. Polman, MD4; Mark S. Freedman, MD5; Hans-Peter Hartung, MD6; David H. Miller, MD7; Xavier Montalbán, MD8; Gilles Edan, MD9; Frederik Barkhof, MD4; Dirk Pleimes, MD10; Ernst-Wilhelm Radü, MD11; Rupert Sandbrink, MD3,6; Ludwig Kappos, MD11; Christoph Pohl, MD3,12

Affiliation: 1Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. 2University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 3Bayer HealthCare, Berlin, Germany. 4VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. 5Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada. 6Heinrich-Heine Universität, Düsseldorf, Germany. 7University College London Institute of Neurology, London, England. 8Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. 9CHU-Hôpital Pontchaillou, Rennes, France. 10Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Montville, New Jersey. 11University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland. 12Bayer HealthCare, Berlin, Germany6Heinrich-Heine Universität, Düsseldorf, Germany. 13Bayer HealthCare, Berlin, Germany12Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Abstract: It remained unclear whether vitamin D insufficiency, which is common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), has an adverse effect on MS outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D), a marker of vitamin D status, predict disease activity and prognosis in patients with a first event suggestive of MS (clinically isolated syndrome). In this large longitudinal study among patients with CIS randomized to early vs late treatment with IFNB-1b, the researchers found that higher serum 25(OH) D levels robustly predicted a lower degree of MS activity, MRI lesion load, brain atrophy, and clinical progression during the 5 years of follow-up. Although controlled studies currently under way may provide more definitive answers as to the therapeutic value of further increasing already adequate vitamin D levels, the results suggest that identification and correction of vitamin D insufficiency has an important role in the early treatment of MS.