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Online Library: Malnutrition

The following pages provide an overview of the most recent research and clinical studies about the health benefits of micronutrients in fighting malnutrition. This collection of scientific facts proves that anyone who privately or publicly questions the health value of micronutrients does not serve YOUR health, or the health of the people, but rather the multi-billion dollar investment 'business with disease' based on patented pharmaceutical drugs.

We encourage you to forward the link to this important online library on natural health – one of the largest ones in the world – to your friends. You may also print out the articles you find most important for your own health condition and share them with your doctor. Any responsibly acting health professional will be grateful to receive such science-based health education.

Malnutrition: The Leading Cause of Immune Deficiency Diseases Worldwide

Source: Dr. Rath’s Cellular Health Series, 2005

Author: Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Ph.D. and Matthias Rath, M.D.

Affiliation: Dr. Rath Research Institute, 1260 Memorex Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95050, USA.

Abstract: “Worldwide, malnutrition and specific nutrient deficiencies are the leading underlying cause of immune deficiency, leading to infections and other diseases. Of the 13-14 million children dying each year in developing countries, 70 percent die of infectious diseases and most are malnourished. Instead of directing funds to cope with these major problems, the governments of these countries are under pressure by pharmacological multinationals to import their drugs. …There is no doubt that a single nutrient does not ensure full health, and a complete spectrum of various micronutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids and trace elements, is needed to support the immune system to its full capacity. This is the direction in nutritional science promoted by [Dr. Rath] Cellular Medicine. Cellular Medicine focuses on nutrient synergy as the most effective approach to optimizing cellular metabolism and restoring its balance, which is essential for health.“ This brochure outlines the scope of the problem – and its solutions.

Home fortification of foods with multiple micronutrient powders for health and nutrition in children under two years of age.

Source: Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 2011; 9: CD008959.

Author: De-Regil LM, Suchdev PS, Vist GE, Walleser S, Peña-Rosas JP.

Affiliation: Micronutrients Unit, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract: Vitamin and mineral deficiencies, particularly those of iron, vitamin A and zinc, affect more than two billion people worldwide. Young children are highly vulnerable because of rapid growth and inadequate dietary practices. Micronutrient powders (MNP) are single-dose packets containing multiple vitamins and minerals in powder form that can be sprinkled onto any semi-solid food. The use of MNP for home or point-of-use fortification of complementary foods has been proposed as an intervention for improving micronutrient intake in children less than two years of age. The authors searched the following databases in February 2011: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (1948 to week 2 February 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 6 2011), CINAHL (1937 to current), CPCI-S (1990 to 19 February 2011), Science Citation Index (1970 to 19 February 2011), African Index Medicus (searched 23 February 2011), POPLINE (searched 21 February 2011), (searched 23 February 2011), mRCT (searched 23 February 2011), and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched 23 February 2011). They also contacted relevant organizations (25 January 2011) for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. They included randomized and quasi-randomized trials with either individual or cluster randomization. Participants were children under the age of two years at the time of intervention, with no specific health problems. The intervention was consumption of food fortified at the point of use with multiple micronutrient powders formulated with at least iron, zinc and vitamin A compared with placebo, no intervention or the use of iron containing supplements, which is the standard practice. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The authors included eight trials (3748 participants) conducted in low income countries in Asia, Africa and the Caribbean, where anaemia is a public health problem. The interventions lasted between two and 12 months and the powder formulations contained between five and 15 nutrients. Authors` conclusions: Home fortification of foods with multiple micronutrient powders is an effective intervention to reduce anaemia and iron deficiency in children six months to 23 months of age. The provision of MNP is better than no intervention or placebo and possibly comparable to commonly used daily iron supplementation. The benefits of this intervention as a child survival strategy or on developmental outcomes are unclear. Data on effects on malaria outcomes are lacking and further investigation of morbidity outcomes is needed. The micronutrient powders containing multiple nutrients are well accepted but adherence is variable and in some cases comparable to that achieved in infants and young children receiving standard iron supplements as drops or syrups.

Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and severe language delay in children.

Source: JAMA. 2011;306(14):1566-73

Author: Roth C, Magnus P, Schjølberg S, Stoltenberg C, Surén P, McKeague IW, Davey Smith G, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Susser E.

Affiliation: Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Abstract: Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects and may have beneficial effects on other aspects of neurodevelopment. This study was done to examine associations between mothers' use of prenatal folic acid supplements and risk of severe language delay in their children at age 3 years. The prospective observational Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study recruited pregnant women between 1999 and December 2008. Data on children born before 2008 whose mothers returned the 3-year follow-up questionnaire by June 16, 2010, were used. Maternal use of folic acid supplements within the interval from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after conception was the exposure. Children's language competency at age 3 years was measured by maternal report on a 6-point ordinal language grammar scale. Children with minimal expressive language (only 1-word or unintelligible utterances) were rated as having severe language delay. Conclusion: Among this Norwegian cohort of mothers and children, maternal use of folic acid supplements in early pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of severe language delay in children at age 3 years.

The plasma proteome identifies expected and novel proteins correlated with micronutrient status in undernourished Nepalese children.


Author: Cole RN, Ruczinski I, Schulze K, Christian P, Herbrich S, Wu L, Devine LR, O'Meally RN, Shrestha S, Boronina TN,Yager JD, Groopman J, West KP Jr.

Affiliation: Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics Core Facility.

Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies are common in undernourished societies yet remain inadequately assessed due to the complexity and costs of existing assays. A plasma proteomics-based approach holds promise in quantifying multiple nutrient: protein associations that reflect biological function and nutritional status. To validate this concept, in plasma samples of a cohort of 500 6- to 8-y-old Nepalese children, the authors estimated cross-sectional correlations between vitamins A (retinol), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), and E (á-tocopherol), copper, and selenium, measured by conventional assays, and relative abundance of their major plasma-bound proteins, measured by quantitative proteomics using 8-plex iTRAQ mass tags. The prevalence of low-to-deficient status was 8.8% for retinol, 19.2% for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 17.6% for á-tocopherol, 0% for copper, and 13.6% for selenium. The authors identified 4705 proteins, 982 in >50 children. Employing a linear mixed effects model, they observed the following correlations: retinol:retinol-binding protein 4, 25-hydroxyvitamin D:vitamin D-binding protein, á-tocopherol:apolipoprotein C-III, copper:ceruloplasmin, and selenium:selenoprotein P isoform 1, passing a false discovery rate threshold of 1%. Individual proteins explained 34-77% (R(2)) of variation in their respective nutrient concentration. Adding second proteins to models raised R(2) to 48-79%, demonstrating a potential to explain additional variation in nutrient concentration by this strategy. Conclusion: Plasma proteomics can identify and quantify protein biomarkers of micronutrient status in undernourished children.

Vitamin D Deficiency

Relationship between vitamin D status and ICU outcomes in veterans.

Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2011; 12(3):208-11.

Author: McKinney JD, Bailey BA, Garrett LH, Peiris P, Manning T, Peiris AN.

Affiliation: Mountain Home VAMC, Mountain Home, USA.

Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency remains a poorly recognized pandemic and is closely linked to increased health care costs in veterans. Projected health care needs in veterans are expected to increase over the next decade. Intensive care unit (ICU) costs contribute significantly to hospital costs and stem from intervention services and management of sepsis including nosocomial infections. Vitamin D has immunomodulating and antimicrobial properties through antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin. A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate if vitamin D deficiency was associated with less than optimal ICU outcomes in veterans. The study included 136 veterans with 25(OH)D levels drawn within a month of admission to ICU. Conclusion: A vitamin D-replete state may reduce costs and confer survival advantages in critical illness. The authors recommend that 25(OH)D levels be routinely checked and deficiencies treated in ICU patients.

Association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and mortality in the critically ill

Source: Critical care medicine 2011 Apr; 39(4):671-7.

Author: Braun A, Chang D, Mahadevappa K, Gibbons FK, Liu Y, Giovannucci E, Christopher KB.

Affiliation: Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, USA.

Abstract: The authors hypothesized that deficiency in 25-hydroxyvitamin D before hospital admission would be associated with all-cause mortality in the critically ill. A multicenter observational study of patients treated in medical and surgical intensive care units, was conducted with a total of 209 medical and surgical intensive care beds in two teaching hospitals in Boston, MA. A total of 2399 patients, age ≥ 18 years, in whom 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured before hospitalization between 1998 and 2009. Conclusion: Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D before hospital admission is a significant predictor of short- and long-term all-cause patient mortality and blood culture positivity in a critically ill patient population.