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Online Library: Macular degeneration

The following pages provide an overview of the most recent research and clinical studies about the health benefits of micronutrients in fighting Macular degeneration. This collection of scientific facts proves that anyone who privately or publicly questions the health value of micronutrients does not serve YOUR health, or the health of the people, but rather the multi-billion dollar investment 'business with disease' based on patented pharmaceutical drugs.

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Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zeaxanthin and visual function in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Zeaxanthin and Visual Function Study

Source: Optometry 2011; 82(11):667-680

Author: Richer SP, Stiles W, Graham-Hoffman K, et al

Affiliation: Lovell Federal Health Care Facility, North Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with the carotenoid zeaxanthin (Zx) raises macula pigment optical density (MPOD) and has unique visual benefits for patients with early atrophic macular degeneration having visual symptoms but lower-risk National Institute of Health/National Eye Institute/Age-Related Eye Disease Study characteristics. This was a 1-year, n = 60 (57 men, 3 women), 4-visit, intention-to-treat, prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial of patients (74.9 years, standard deviation [SD] 10) with mild-to-moderate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary supplement carotenoid pigment intervention groups: 8 mg Zx (n = 25) and 8 mg Zx plus 9 mg lutein (L) (n = 25) or 9 mg L ("Faux Placebo," control group, n = 10). 90% of subjects completed ≥ 2 visits with an initial Age-Related Eye Disease Study report #18 retinopathy score of 1.4 (1.0 SD)/4.0 and pill intake compliance of 96% with no adverse effects. There were no intergroup differences in 3 major AMD risk factors: age, smoking, and body mass index as well as disease duration and Visual Function Questionnaire 25 composite score differences. Conclusion: In older male patients with AMD, Zx-induced foveal* MPOD elevation mirrored that of L and provided complementary distinct visual benefits by improving foveal cone-based visual parameters, whereas L enhanced those parameters associated with gross detailed rod-based vision, with considerable overlap between the 2 carotenoids. The equally dosed (atypical dietary ratio) Zx plus L group fared worse in terms of raising MPOD, presumably because of duodenal, hepatic-lipoprotein or retinal carotenoid competition. These results make biological sense based on retinal distribution and Zx foveal predominance.

* The fovea centralis, also generally known as the fovea, is a part of the eye, located in the center of the macula region of the retina. The fovea is responsible for sharp central vision (also called foveal vision), which is necessary for reading, watching, driving, and any activity where visual detail is of primary importance.

Long-term effects of vitamins C and E, -carotene, and zinc on age-related macular degeneration: AREDS report no. 35.


Author: Chew EY, Clemons TE, Agrón E, Sperduto RD, et al.

Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Eye Institute/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA

Abstract: The objective was to describe the long-term effects (10 years) of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation of high-dose antioxidants and zinc supplement on progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial followed by an epidemiologic follow-up study. The authors enrolled 4757 participants with varying severity of AMD in the clinical trial; 3549 surviving participants consented to the follow-up study. Participants were randomly assigned to antioxidants C, E, and -carotene and/or zinc versus placebo during the clinical trial. For participants with intermediate or advanced AMD in 1 eye, the AREDS formulation delayed the progression to advanced AMD. Participants were then enrolled in a follow-up study. Eye examinations were conducted with annual fundus photographs and best-corrected visual acuity assessments. Medical histories and mortality were obtained for safety monitoring. Repeated measures logistic regression was used in the primary analyses. Comparison of the participants originally assigned to placebo in AREDS categories 3 and 4 at baseline with those originally assigned to AREDS formulation at 10 years demonstrated a significant odds reduction in the risk of developing advanced AMD or the development of NV AMD. No significant reduction was seen for the CGA. A significant reduction for the development of moderate vision loss was seen. No adverse effects were associated with the AREDS formulation. Mortality was reduced in participants assigned to zinc, especially death from circulatory diseases. Conclusion: Five years after the clinical trial ended, the beneficial effects of the AREDS formulation persisted for development of NV AMD but not for CGA. These results are consistent with the original recommendations that persons with intermediate or advanced AMD in 1 eye should consider taking the AREDS formulation.