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Online Library: Hypertension

The following pages provide an overview of the most recent research and clinical studies about the health benefits of micronutrients in fighting hypertension. This collection of scientific facts proves that anyone who privately or publicly questions the health value of micronutrients does not serve YOUR health, or the health of the people, but rather the multi-billion dollar investment 'business with disease' based on patented pharmaceutical drugs.

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Folate intake and incidence of hypertension among American young adults: a 20-y follow-up study.

Source: Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May;95(5):1023-30.

Author: Xun P, Liu K, Loria CM, Bujnowski D, Shikany JM, Schreiner PJ, Sidney S, He K.

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.

Abstract: Laboratory studies suggest that folate intake may decrease blood pressure (BP) through increasing nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells and/or reducing plasma homocysteine concentrations. However, human studies, particularly longitudinal data, are limited. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dietary folate intake is associated with the 20-y incidence of hypertension. The authors prospectively followed 4400 men and women (African Americans and whites aged 18-30 y) without hypertension at baseline (1985) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study 6 times, in 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Diet was assessed by dietary-history questionnaire at baseline and in 1992 and 2005. Incident hypertension was defined as the first occurrence at any follow-up examination of systolic BP 140 mm Hg, diastolic BP 90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Conclusion: Higher folate intake in young adulthood was longitudinally associated with a lower incidence of hypertension later in life. This inverse association was more pronounced in whites. Additional studies are warranted to establish the causal inference.

Watermelon extract supplementation reduces ankle blood pressure and carotid augmentation index in obese adults with prehypertension or hypertension.

Source: Am J Hypertens. 2012 Jun;25(6):640-3.

Author: Figueroa A, Sanchez-Gonzalez MA, Wong A, Arjmandi BH.

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, College of Human Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Abstract: Ankle-brachial index (ABI) and ankle blood pressure (BP) are associated with increased carotid wave reflection (augmentation index, AIx). Oral L-citrulline and L-arginine from synthetic or watermelon sources have reduced brachial BP, aortic BP, and aortic AIx. A directly measured carotid AIx (cAIx) rather than aortic AIx has been proposed as a better measurement of central AIx. The authors evaluated the effects of watermelon extract on ankle BP and cAIx in individuals with normal ABI and prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. Conclusions: This study shows that watermelon extract supplementation reduces ankle BP, brachial BP, and carotid wave reflection in obese middle-aged adults with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension and normal ABI, which may reflect improved arterial function.

Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.


Author: Siervo M, Lara J, Ogbonmwan I, Mathers JC.

Affiliation: Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle on Tyne, UK.

Abstract: Diets including food products rich in inorganic nitrate are associated with lower blood pressure (BP). The evidence for the BP-lowering effects of inorganic nitrate and beetroot in randomized clinical trials has not been systematically assessed. The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials that examined the effects of inorganic nitrate and beetroot supplementation on BP. Medline, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were searched from inception to February 2013. The specific inclusion criteria were: 1) randomized clinical trials; 2) trials reporting effects on systolic or diastolic BP or both; and 3) trials comparing inorganic nitrate or beetroot juice supplementation with placebo control groups. Random-effects models were used to assess the pooled BP effect sizes. Sixteen trials met the eligibility criteria for the systematic review. All studies had a crossover study design. The trials were conducted between 2006 and 2012 and included a total of 254 participants with 7-30 participants/study. The duration of each intervention ranged from 2 h to 15 d. Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice consumption were associated with greater changes in systolic BP than diastolic BP. The meta-regression showed an association between daily dose of inorganic nitrate and changes in systolic BP. Conclusion: Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in systolic BP.

Acute ingestion of beetroot bread increases endothelium-independent vasodilation and lowers diastolic blood pressure in healthy men: a randomized controlled trial.


Author: Hobbs DA, Goulding MG, Nguyen A, Malaver T, et al.

Affiliation: Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, et al, UK.

Abstract: Dietary nitrate, from beetroot, has been reported to lower blood pressure (BP) by the sequential reduction of nitrate to nitrite and further to NO in the circulation. However, the impact of beetroot on microvascular vasodilation and arterial stiffness is unknown. In addition, beetroot is consumed by only 4.5% of the UK population, whereas bread is a staple component of the diet. Thus, the authors investigated the acute effects of beetroot bread (BB) on microvascular vasodilation, arterial stiffness, and BP in healthy participants. Twenty-three healthy men received 200 g bread containing 100 g beetroot (1.1 mmol nitrate) or 200 g control white bread (CB; 0 g beetroot, 0.01 mmol nitrate) in an acute, randomized, open-label, controlled crossover trial. The primary outcome was postprandial microvascular vasodilation measured by laser Doppler iontophoresis and the secondary outcomes were arterial stiffness measured by Pulse Wave Analysis and Velocity and ambulatory BP measured at regular intervals for a total period of 6 h. Plasma nitrate and nitrite were measured at regular intervals for a total period of 7 h. The incremental area under the curve (0-6 h after ingestion of bread) for endothelium-independent vasodilation was greater and lower for diastolic BP but not systolic BP after BB compared with CB. These effects occurred in conjunction with increases in plasma and urinary nitrate and nitrite. Conclusion: BB acutely increased endothelium-independent vasodilation and decreased DBP. Therefore, enriching bread with beetroot may be a suitable vehicle to increase intakes of cardioprotective beetroot in the diet and may provide new therapeutic perspectives in the management of hypertension.