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Online Library: Arrhythmia
(Irregular Heart Beat)

The following pages provide an overview of the most recent research and clinical studies about the health benefits of micronutrients in fighting Arrhythmia. This collection of scientific facts proves that anyone who privately or publicly questions the health value of micronutrients does not serve YOUR health, or the health of the people, but rather the multi-billion dollar investment 'business with disease' based on patented pharmaceutical drugs.

We encourage you to forward the link to this important online library on natural health – one of the largest ones in the world – to your friends. You may also print out the articles you find most important for your own health condition and share them with your doctor. Any responsibly acting health professional will be grateful to receive such science-based health education.

Hypomagnesemia in heart failure with ventricular arrhythmias. Beneficial effects of magnesium supplementation.

Source: Journal of Internal Medicine 2000; 247(1): 78-86

Author: Ceremuzyński L, Gebalska J, Wolk R, Makowska E

Affiliation: Klinika Kardiologii CMKP, Szpital Grochowski, Warszawa, Poland

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of electrolyte imbalance in cardiac arrhythmias associated with congestive heart failure. DESIGN: Serum magnesium and potassium levels, urine magnesium excretion and the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias were assessed throughout the study. The patients who displayed complex arrhythmias after the first week of hospital medication were randomized 2:1 to double-blind magnesium supplementation or placebo. SETTING: The study was carried out in one municipal hospital, providing primary care. SUBJECTS: A total of 588 consecutive patients were screened for eligibility (clinical heart failure >/=6 months; NYHA class II-IV; left ventricular ejection fraction </=40%; sinus rhythm; serum creatinine </=2 mg dL-1). A total of 78 patients entered and 68 patients completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: Intravenous administration of magnesium (magnesium sulphate 8 g in 250 mL of 5% glucose) or placebo (250 mL of 5% glucose) over 12 h. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) Incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with hypomagnesemia; (ii) effects of magnesium supplementation on ventricular arrhythmias. RESULTS: On admission, hypomagnesemia was found in 38% and excessive magnesium loss in 72% of patients. Serum magnesium levels were lower and urine magnesium excretion was greater in patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias, both on admission and after treatment for heart failure. Intravenous administration of magnesium caused a significant decrease in the number of ventricular ectopic beats (P < 0.0001), couplets (P < 0.003) and episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Hypomagnesemia, probably related to increased urine magnesium excretion, is an essential feature of heart failure associated with complex ventricular arrhythmias. These arrhythmias can be alleviated/abolished by magnesium supplementation.

Ventricular arrhythmias late after myocardial infarction are related to hypomagnesemia and magnesium loss: preliminary trial of corrective therapy.

Source: Clinical Cardiology 1993; 16(6): 493-496

Author: Ceremuzyński L, Van Hao N

Affiliation: Department of Cardiology, Postgraduate Medical School, Warsaw, Poland

Abstract: It has been well established that in acute myocardial infarction (MI) many patients display low serum magnesium (Mg). This is associated with complex ventricular arrhythmias. The question arises whether predischarge arrhythmias occurring late after MI might also be related to Mg imbalance. In 118 patients subjected to heart rhythm 24 h Holter monitoring in the second or third week after MI, we investigated (1) the relationship between serum Mg, urinary Mg loss, and ventricular arrhythmias, and (2) the effect of Mg supplementation on heart rhythm disturbances. In patients with undisturbed rhythm or monomorphic ventricular ectopic beats (VEB) (Lown 0-2; n = 84), mean serum Mg level (mg% +/- SD) was 1.83 +/- 0.21, whereas in patients with multifocal VEB, pairs, or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (Lown 3-4; n = 34) serum Mg was decreased to 1.68 +/- 0.27 (p < 0.01). Serum Mg normal range in our laboratory is 1.7-2.6 mg%. The lowest serum Mg reaching 1.55 +/- 0.27 was found in nonsustained VT (Lown 4 b) subgroup (n = 14). Urinary Mg loss measured in 81 patients was more pronounced in those with Lown 3-4 arrhythmias (n = 26) than with Lown 0-2 (n = 55). The daily values were 73 +/- 22 and 54.4 +/- 26 mg, respectively (p < 0.001). Thirteen patients with complex arrhythmias and low serum Mg received Mg supplementation (MgSO4, 8 g in 500 ml 5% glucose intravenously during 24 h). This resulted in restoration of almost undisturbed rhythm in 10 subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Vigorous supplementation of a hypocaloric diet prevents cardiac arrhythmias and mineral depletion.

Source: The American Journal of Medicine 1983; 74(6): 1016-22

Author: Amatruda JM, Biddle TL, Patton ML, Lockwood DH


Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that a hypocaloric, nutritionally deficient, liquid protein diet is associated with potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, which increased in frequency and complexity over the duration of the study. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the metabolic and cardiac changes associated with a hypocaloric, but otherwise nutritionally complete, diet. Six healthy, obese females from 154 to 182 percent of ideal body weight were evaluated in a metabolic ward for 48 days. The subjects ingested a weight maintenance diet during an eight-day period, which was followed by 40 days of an experimental diet containing 472 kcal of a mixture of protein (60 percent of calories), carbohydrate (25 percent), and fat (15 percent). This diet equaled or exceeded the recommended daily allowances for minerals, trace elements, vitamins, and essential fatty acids. The subjects were monitored for balances of nitrogen and minerals, as well as for the appearance of cardiac arrhythmias by 24-hour electrocardiographic recordings. Nitrogen balance was positive, and the previously demonstrated negative balances for potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus were either reversed or markedly decreased. In contrast to our previous study, no arrhythmias were observed in subjects ingesting the present experimental diet, and no significant change in cardiac rhythm was found in 13 obese, but otherwise healthy, outpatients. The data, based on a limited number of subjects, suggest that a hypocaloric diet vigorously supplemented with essential elements, micronutrients, and vitamins appears to be safer than the once popular, incomplete liquid protein preparation.

Beneficial effects of vitamin E treatment in acute myocardial infarction.

Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2000; 5(1): 51-58

Author: Sethi R, Takeda N, Nagano M, Dhalla NS

Affiliation: Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vitamin E (Vit E), an antioxidant, is considered to prolong survival in patients and animals after myocardial infarction. Because myocardial infarction is associated with arrhythmia and heart dysfunction, this study tested the hypothesis that early treatment with Vit E reduces mortality because of its protective effects against arrhythmia and cardiac dysfunction induced by acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham control, myocardial infarcted, Vit E-treated sham control, and Vit E-treated infarcted animals. Myocardial infarction was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Treated animals received Vit E (25 mg/kg/d) through a gastric tube beginning 1 hour after the coronary occlusion, whereas control rats received tap water. RESULTS: Electrocardiograms (lead II) at 1, 3, 7, and 21 days after coronary occlusion in the untreated animals showed ST-segment elevation, abnormal Q waves, premature ventricular complex (PVC), and QTc prolongation. Conversely, Vit E-treated rats showed attenuated ST-segment changes, fewer abnormal Q waves, and decreased incidence of PVC after coronary occlusion. Total mortality was reduced from 38% to 16%, whereas the infarct size was decreased from 44.2% to 22.3% in infarcted rats treated with Vit E. The depression in left ventricular function as well as elevation of malondialdehyde content and conjugated diene formation in the 21-day infarcted rat hearts were prevented by Vit E treatment. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that Vit E may exert beneficial effects on the heart by reducing oxidative stress in acute myocardial infarction.

Usefulness of antioxidant vitamins in suspected acute myocardial infarction (the Indian experiment of infarct survival-3)

Source: The American Journal of Cardiology 1996; 77(4): 232-236

Author: Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, Rastogi S

Affiliation: Heart Research Laboratory, Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Moradabad, India.

Abstract: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the effects of combined treatment with the antioxidant vitamins A (50,000 IU/day), vitamin C (1,000 mg/day), vitamin E (400 mg/day), and beta-carotene (25 mg/day) were compared for 28 days in 63 (intervention group) and 62 (placebo group) patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. After treatment with antioxidants, the mean infarct size (creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB gram equivalents) was significantly less in the antioxidant group than in the placebo group. Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase decreased by 45.6 IU/dl in the antioxidant group versus 25.8 IU/dl in the placebo group (p < 0.02). Cardiac enzyme lactate dehydrogenase increased slightly (88.6 IU/dl) in the antioxidant group compared with that in the placebo group (166.5 IU/dl) (p < 0.01). QRS score in the electrocardiogram was significantly less in the antioxidant than in the placebo group. The following levels increased in the antioxidant group versus the placebo group, respectively: plasma levels of vitamin E increased by 8.8 and 2.2 mumol/L (p < 0.01), vitamin C increased by 12.6 and 4.2 mumol/L (p < 0.01), beta-carotene increased by 0.28 and 0.06 mumol/L (p < 0.01), and vitamin A increased by 0.36 and 0.12 mumol/L (p < 0.01). Serum lipid peroxides decreased by 1.22 pmol/ml in antioxidant versus 0.22 pmol/ml in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Angina pectoris, total arrhythmias, and poor left ventricular function occurred less often in the antioxidant group. Cardiac end points were significantly less in the antioxidant group (20.6% vs 30.6%, respectively). These results suggest that combined treatment with antioxidant vitamins A, E, C, and beta-carotene in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction may be protective against cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress, and could be beneficial in preventing complications and cardiac event rate in such patients.

Plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress in patients with acute myocardial infarction

Source: Acta Cardiologica 1994; 49(5): 441-452

Author: Singh RB, Niaz MA, Sharma JP, Kumar R, Bishnoi I, Begom R

Affiliation: Heart Research Laboratory, Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Moradabad, B.H.U., Varanasi College for Women Trivandrum, India.

Abstract: Of 138 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 29 were excluded. Remaining 109 patients and 182 healthy controls of similar age and sex and same population were studied in detail for demographic variables, clinical and biochemical data for comparison. Mean age, sex, body weight, body mass index and blood pressures were comparable in the two groups whereas blood lipids, blood glucose and cardiac enzymes were raised in AMI patients compared to controls. Mean levels of vitamin C, E, A and beta-carotene were significantly less in AMI patients than controls whereas the lipid peroxides were significantly higher in AMI patients. The reduction in vitamin C and beta-carotene was more marked than decrease in other vitamins. With in AMI patients, those 28 patients who had cardiac arrhythmias showed greater decrease in vitamins compared to rest of the patients. Within both groups, smokers and diabetes patients had greater reduction in vitamin C and beta-carotene than other patients and subjects without confounding factors. Smokers also had higher lipid peroxides level than non-smokers. The inverse relation between AMI and low plasma vitamin levels remained significant after exclusion of patients with smoking and diabetes. These findings suggest that vitamin deficiency may be a risk factor of AMI and these patients may benefit by administration of these antioxidant vitamins for primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease.

Carnitine and its role in cardiovascular disease.

Source: Heart Disease 1999; 1(2): 108-113

Author: Retter AS

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Temple University Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA.

Abstract: L-carnitine and its derivative, propionyl-L-carnitine, are organic amines produced and metabolized endogenously. These compounds are essential in the process of fatty acid oxidation and have also been shown to reduce intracellular accumulation of toxic metabolites during ischemia. Currently, exogenous administration of carnitine is indicated only as therapy for primary and secondary carnitine deficiency. However, it has been hypothesized that because of its ability to enhance energy production and remove toxic metabolites during ischemia, carnitine therapy may be useful in the treatment of various cardiac diseases. In fact, there is increasing evidence that endogenous carnitine has beneficial effects in the treatment of congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, peripheral vascular disease, and acute ischemia.

[Therapy of arrhythmia induced by myocardial ischemia. Association of L-carnitine, propafenone and mexiletine]

Source: La Clinica terapeutica 1995; 146(12): 769-774

Author: Mondillo S, Faglia S, D'Aprile N, Mangiacotti L, Campolo MA, Agricola E, Palazzuoli V

Affiliation: Istituto di Patologia Speciale Medica, Università degli Studi di Siena.

Abstract: To assess the anti-arrythmic effect of L-carnitina, propafenone and mexiletine, we tested the drugs in 50 patients with effort angina and ventricular ectopic beats (VEB). The patients were randomized in 5 groups: Group A: was treated with oral L-carnitine at the dose of 2 g x 3 for two weeks. Group B: oral propafenone at the dose of 300 mg x 3 for two weeks. Group C: as group B+L-carnitine+g x 3 at the second weeks. Group D: oral mexiletine at the dose of 200 mg x 3 for two weeks. Group E: as group D+L-carnitine 2 gr x 3 at the second week. After 7 and 14 days of treatment, in all patients an Holter examination was performed. Our results show that L-carnitine exerts a significant reduction of the VEB and its administration potentiates the anti-arrythmic effect of propafenone and mexiletine.

Magnesium deficiency. Role in arrhythmias complicating acute myocardial infarction?

Source: The Medical Journal of Australia 1981; 1(7): 346-348

Author: Bigg RP, Chia R


Abstract: Magnesium deficiency is likely to occur in certain patients prone to developing acute myocardial infarction, such as hypertensive patients being treated with diuretics, alcoholics, diabetics and patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy taking diuretics and digitalis. Magnesium deficiency commonly accompanies potassium deficiency, can also cause it, and can prevent correction of potassium deficiency if potassium supplements alone are used. The results of analysis of plasma magnesium and potassium levels in 25 patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction are presented. Three patients were hypomagnesaemic and all exhibited serious ventricular arrhythmias (two patients exhibited early ventricular fibrillation and the third exhibited ventricular trigeminy and multifocal ventricular ectopy). Two of the three hypomagnesaemic patients were hypokalaemic. Two other patients in the series exhibited ventricular tachycardia and both were hypokalaemic. Magnesium therapy should be considered in hypokalaemic patients during the early stages of acute myocardial infarction, as the body distribution kinetics of magnesium and potassium are interlinked and magnesium deficiency may be the crucial factor in hypokalaemia-associated arrhythmias. In addition, consideration should be given to magnesium supplementation in patients prone to acute myocardial infarction if there is a likelihood of magnesium deficiency developing, as magnesium-deficient patients may be more susceptible to developing potentially fatal ventricular tachyarrhythmias during the early stages of infarction.

Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation in men.

Source: Circulation. 2009;120(23):2315-21.

Author: Virtanen JK, Mursu J, Voutilainen S, Tuomainen TP.

Affiliation: Research Institute of Public Health, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland

Abstract: In a study involving 2,174 men (subjects aged 42-60 years, from a prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study), free of atrial fibrillation (AF) at baseline, increased serum concentrations of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were found to protect against atrial fibrillation. Subjects were followed up with for an average 17.7 years, during which time 240 atrial fibrillation events occurred. The authors conclude, "An increased concentration of long-chain n-3 PUFAs in serum, a marker of fish or fish oil consumption, may protect against AF. Serum docosahexaenoic acid concentration had the greatest impact."

The role of ascorbic acid in the prevention of atrial fibrillation after elective on-pump myocardial revascularization surgery: a single-center experience--a pilot study.

Source: Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery 2011;12(2):121-4.

Author: Papoulidis P, Ananiadou O, Chalvatzoulis E, Ampatzidou F, Koutsogiannidis C, Karaiskos T, Madesis A, Drossos G.

Affiliation: Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, General Hospital G. Papanikolaou, Greece.

Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia that occurs postoperatively in cardiac surgery. There is evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the etiology of AF. In this study, the authors examined whether antioxidant ascorbic acid (vitamin C), could help in the reduction of the incidence of postoperative AF. Patients who were scheduled to undergo elective isolated on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were included in the study. 170 patients were randomly divided in two groups: Group A (n=85) received vitamin C preoperatively and postoperatively whereas Group B (n=85) did not receive any (control group). The incidence of AF was 44.7% in the vitamin C group and 61.2% in the control group (P=0.041). The hospitalization time, the intensive care unit stay and the time interval for the conversion of AF into sinus rhythm was significantly shorter in the vitamin C group. Patients that developed AF also had longer hospital length of stay (9.52.8 days vs. 6.71.9, P=0.034). Conclusion: Supplementation of vitamin C reduces the incidence of postCABG AF, and decreases the time needed for rhythm restoration and length of hospital stay.