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Online Library: Anti-Aging

The following pages provide an overview of the most recent research and clinical studies about the health benefits of micronutrients in anti-aging. This collection of scientific facts proves that anyone who privately or publicly questions the health value of micronutrients does not serve YOUR health, or the health of the people, but rather the multi-billion dollar investment 'business with disease' based on patented pharmaceutical drugs.

We encourage you to forward the link to this important online library on natural health – one of the largest ones in the world – to your friends. You may also print out the articles you find most important for your own health condition and share them with your doctor. Any responsibly acting health professional will be grateful to receive such science-based health education.

Apple polyphenols extend the mean lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster.

Source: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2011;59(5):2097-106

Author: Peng C, Chan HY, Huang Y, Yu H, Chen ZY.

Affiliation: Food and Nutritional Sciences Programme, School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , China.

Abstract: Apple polyphenols (AP) are an excellent source of dietary antioxidants. The present study investigated the effect of AP on the lifespan of fruit flies and their interaction with gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (MTH), Rpn11, and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) subunits III and VIb. Results showed the mean lifespan was significantly extended by 10% in fruit flies fed the AP diet. This was accompanied by up-regulation of genes SOD1, SOD2, and CAT and down-regulation of MTH in the aged fruit flies. Paraquat and H(2)O(2) challenge tests demonstrated that AP prolonged the survival time only for Oregon R wild type flies but not for SOD(n108) or Cat(n1) mutants, in which either SOD or CAT was knocked out. Chronic paraquat exposure could shorten the maximum lifespan from 68 to 31 days and reduce the climbing ability by 60%, whereas AP could partially reverse the paraquat-induced mortality and decline in climbing ability. AP could up-regulate Rpn11 at day 30, whereas it appeared to have no significant effect on gene expression of ubiquitinated protein, CcO subunits III and VIb. These AP-induced changes were unlikely associated with caloric restriction as the gustatory assay found no difference in average body weight and stomach redness index between the control and AP fruit flies. It was therefore concluded that the antiaging activity of AP was, at least in part, mediated by its interaction with genes SOD, CAT, MTH, and Rpn11.

Prevention of mutation, cancer, and other age-associated diseases by optimizing micronutrient intake.

Source: Journal of nucleic acids 2010; 2010. pii: 725071.

Author: Ames BN.

Affiliation: Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, USA.

Abstract: The author reviewed three of his research efforts which suggest that optimizing micronutrient intake will in turn optimize metabolism, resulting in decreased DNA damage and less cancer as well as other degenerative diseases of aging. Research was done on delay of the mitochondrial decay of aging, including release of mutagenic oxidants, by supplementing rats with lipoic acid and acetyl carnitine. The triage theory posits that modest micronutrient deficiencies (common in much of the population) accelerate molecular aging, including DNA damage, mitochondrial decay, and supportive evidence for the theory, including an in-depth analysis of vitamin K that suggests the importance of achieving optimal micronutrient intake for longevity. The finding that decreased enzyme binding constants (increased Km) for coenzymes (or substrates) can result from protein deformation and loss of function due to an age-related decline in membrane fluidity, or to polymorphisms or mutation. The loss of enzyme function can be compensated by a high dietary intake of any of the B vitamins, which increases the level of the vitamin-derived coenzyme. This dietary remediation illustrates the importance of understanding the effects of age and polymorphisms on optimal micronutrient requirements. Optimizing micronutrient intake could have a major effect on the prevention of cancer and other degenerative diseases of aging.

Green tea extract supplementation gives protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage in healthy men

Source: Nutrition research 2011;31(11):813-21

Author: Jówko E, Sacharuk J, Balasinska B, Ostaszewski P, Charmas M, Charmas R.

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biala Podlaska, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Poland.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a long-term (4-week) green tea extract (GTE) supplementation in combination with strength training on selected blood markers of oxidative stress and muscular damage after a short-term exercise in previously untrained men. We hypothesized that GTE supplementation would elevate antioxidant potential and attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscular damage. Thirty-five male students were exposed to 4 weeks of strength training and received (in a randomized, double-blind design) GTE (n = 17; 640 mg polyphenols/d) or placebo (P; n = 18). Before (term I) and after 4 weeks of strength training and supplementation (term II), students performed a short-term muscular endurance test. Blood samples were collected at rest, 5 minutes after the muscular endurance test, and after 24 hours of recovery. Supplementation with GTE enhanced plasma total polyphenols at rest and 5 minutes after the muscular endurance test. Supplementation also contributed to the rise of resting total antioxidant status in plasma. Throughout the experiment (terms I and II), a reduction in plasma lipid hydroxyperoxides was observed 24 hours after the muscular endurance test. Four weeks of strength training resulted in an increase in plasma lipid hydroxyperoxides at rest, but only in the P group. In term I, the muscular endurance test induced an increase in activity of creatine kinase in plasma after 24 hours of recovery in both the P and GTE groups. In term II, plasma creatine kinase activity after 24 hours of recovery was elevated only in the P group. In conclusion, in previously untrained men, dietary supplementation with GTE (in combination with strength training) enhances the antioxidant defense system in plasma at rest and, in turn, may give protection against oxidative damage induced by both short-term muscular endurance test and long-term strength training.

No effects of three-week consumption of a green tea extract on time trial performance in endurance-trained men

Source: International journal for vitamin and nutrition research 2010; 80(1):54-64.

Author: Eichenberger P, Mettler S, Arnold M, Colombani PC.

Affiliation: Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three-week consumption of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on time trial performance and metabolism during cycling in endurance athletes. Nine endurance-trained men participated in this double-blind and placebo-controlled cross-over study. At the end of the supplementation period with GTE (159 mg/day total catechins) or placebo, respectively, subjects cycled at 50 % of the individual maximal power output for 2 hours, followed by a 30-minute time trial. Respiratory gas exchange, fatty acids, 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, glucose, interleukin-6, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, creatine kinase, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured 1 hour before, during, and 1 hour after the exercise test. Blood lipids were measured at rest before cycling. There was no significant effect on performance, energy metabolism, or any other measured parameter, except for CRP, which was significantly reduced (p = 0.045) after GTE supplementation compared to placebo. GTE supplementation did not affect time trial performance and energy metabolism in endurance-trained men in the non-fasting state. Further studies with athletes, particularly in the fed state, but with higher GTE doses, are needed to address the question whether green tea may influence energy metabolism and performance in athletes.

Effects of 3-week consumption of green tea extracts on whole-body metabolism during cycling exercise in endurance-trained men

Source: International journal for vitamin and nutritional research 2009; 79(1):24-33.

Author: Eichenberger P, Colombani PC, Mettler S.

Affiliation: Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract: The consumption of green tea has been generally associated with beneficial effects on human whole-body metabolism and recent investigations with animals indicate favorable effects of green tea extracts (GTE) on energy metabolism during exercise and aerobic exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a three-week supplementation with GTE on human energy metabolism during submaximal cycling exercise. In a randomized, double-blind crossover setting, 10 healthy endurance-trained men exercised for 2 hours at 50 % W(max) before and after three weeks of placebo or GTE supplementation (GTE containing about 160 mg x day(-1) total catechins, of which about 70 mg x day(-1) was epigallocatechin-3-gallate). The GTE supplementation did not influence indices of fat and energy metabolism (fatty acids, 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate, triacylglycerol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, lactate, glucose, oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, energy expenditure), inflammation processes (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein), and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, oxidized low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol), but plasma creatine kinase concentration at rest and during exercise was significantly lower (p = 0.039) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentration at rest was significantly higher (p = 0.043) compared to placebo. In conclusion, these results suggest only slight effects on whole-body metabolism after supplementation with GTE.

Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women

Source: The American journal of clinical nutrition 2012; 95(2):428-36.

Author: Rodacki CL, Rodacki AL, Pereira G, Naliwaiko K, Coelho I, Pequito D, Fernandes LC.

Affiliation: Paraná Federal University, Setor de Cięncias Biológicas, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Abstract: Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 days, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 days (ST90 group) or for 150 days (ST150 group; supplemented 60 days before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Conclusion: Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.

A complex dietary supplement augments spatial learning, brain mass, and mitochondrial electron transport chain activity in aging mice

Source: Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 2011 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Author: Aksenov V, Long J, Liu J, Szechtman H, Khanna P, Matravadia S, Rollo CD.

Affiliation: Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Abstract: The authors developed a complex dietary supplement designed to offset five key mechanisms of aging and tested its effectiveness in ameliorating age-related cognitive decline using a visually cued Morris water maze test. All younger mice (<1 year old) learned the task well. However, older untreated mice (>1 year) were unable to learn the maze even after 5 days, indicative of strong cognitive decline at older ages. In contrast, no cognitive decline was evident in older supplemented mice, even when ~2 years old. Supplemented older mice were nearly 50% better at locating the platform than age-matched controls. Brain weights of supplemented mice were significantly greater than controls, even at younger ages. Reversal of cognitive decline in activity of complexes III and IV by supplementation was significantly associated with cognitive improvement, implicating energy supply as one possible mechanism. These results represent proof of principle that complex dietary supplements can provide powerful benefits for cognitive function and brain aging.

Leucine* supplementation chronically improves muscle protein synthesis in older adults consuming the RDA for protein.

Source: Clinical Nutrition 2012 Aug;31(4):512-9. Epub 2012 Feb 20

Author: Casperson SL, Sheffield-Moore M, Hewlings SJ, Paddon-Jones D.

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.

Abstract: Protein-energy supplementation is routinely employed to combat muscle loss. However, success is often compromised by increased satiety, poor palatability, high costs and low compliance. For 2-weeks the authors supplemented meals of older individuals with leucine (4 g/meal; 3 meals/day; days 2-14). Metabolic studies were performed prior to (Day 1) and following (Day 15) supplementation. Leucine was not provided on metabolic study days. Venous blood and vastus lateralis* muscle biopsies were obtained during a primed constant infusion of L-phenylalanine. Mixed muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR), body composition and markers of nutrient signaling were measured before and after a low protein/carbohydrate simulated meal. The meal modestly increased FSR on Day 1, however, two weeks of leucine supplementation increased postabsorptive FSR and the response to the meal. No change in fat free mass was observed. Conclusions: In older adults, leucine supplementation may improve muscle protein synthesis in response to lower protein meals.

* As an essential amino acid, leucine is unable to be synthesised by animals. Consequently, it must be ingested, usually as a component of proteins.
* The Vastus lateralis is the largest part of the upper leg muscles.

Vitamin D Deficiency in Elderly People in Swedish Nursing Homes is Associated with Increased Mortality


Author: Samefors M, et al.

Affiliation: Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Abstract: Institutionalised elderly people at northern latitudes may be at elevated risk for vitamin D deficiency. In addition to osteoporosis related disorders, vitamin D deficiency may influence several medical conditions conferring an increased mortality risk. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with mortality. A prospective cohort study among elderly people (>65 years) in 11 nursing homes in Sweden as a part of the Study of Health and Drugs in the Elderly (SHADES). We analysed the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) at baseline. Vital status of the subjects was ascertained and hazard ratios (HR) for mortality according to 25(OH)D3 quartiles (Q) were calculated. This study examined 333 study participants with a mean follow-up of 3 years. 147 (44%) patients died. Compared with the subjects in Q4(25(OH)D3 >48 nmol/l), HR (with 95% confidence interval) for mortality was 2.02 (1.31-3.12) in Q1(25(OH)D3 <29 nmol/l) (p<0.05), 2.03 (1.32-3.14) in Q2(25(OH)D3 30-37 nmol/l) (p<0.05) and 1.6 (1.03-2.48) in Q3(25(OH)D3 38-47 nmol/l) (p<0.05). The mean 25(OH)D3 concentration was 40.2 nmol/l (Standard Deviation (SD) 16.0) and 80% had 25(OH)D3 below 50 nmol/l. The vitamin D levels decreased from baseline to the second and third measurement. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent and associated with increased mortality among elderly in Swedish nursing homes. Strategies to prevent, and maybe treat, vitamin D deficiency in elderly in nursing homes are needed and the benefit of vitamin D supplementation should be evaluated in randomised clinical trials.