Get Educated!

Welcome to our online library!

Online Library: Nutrient Synergy

Nutrient Synergy (NS) – is a novel, scientifically based concept that has been introduced and successfully applied by Dr. Matthias Rath and his research team in the development of effective approaches to human health. This approach is based on the fact that micronutrients work in the body forming synergy teams which allow for achieving greater biological effects than they would have acted independently. For maximum synergistic effect, it is necessary to select the proper nutrients and combine them in the right proportions.

The majority of health approaches in the area of nutrient supplementation are based on using single nutrients or their very high doses (mega-doses) as the measure to restore health. The new nutrient synergy approach leads to higher physiological effects using moderate doses of individual components. This approach prevents unmasking other nutrient deficiencies associated with using megadoses of individual compounds or triggering metabolic imbalances at the cellular level.

Dr. Rath’s research has confirmed that the nutrient synergy approach has a dramatic impact on decreasing cancer cell growth; reversal of atherosclerotic plaques and improving heart function; managing high blood pressure; high cholesterol; diabetes; bone health; eye health; and controlling infectious diseases.

In recent years a growing number of researchers have started looking at the benefits of nutrient synergy and an increasing number of clinical trials have been conducted using specific nutrient combinations in various diseases. Various independent studies have confirmed the efficacy of nutrient synergy in addressing various health problems.

Cellular Nutrient Synergy in Health: What It Is, How It Works

Source: Dr. Rath?s Cellular Health Series, 2006

Author: Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Ph.D, and Matthias Rath, M.D.

Affiliation: Dr. Rath Research Institute, 1260 Memorex Drive, Santa Clara, California 95050

Abstract: This brochure describes how the biochemical systems within the body operate under the law of synergy. It is important to remember that no single nutrient works alone in the body. Taking too much of one nutrient in isolation can have a powerful and potentially disruptive influence on the mechanisms that regulate our biochemistry. ?Cellular Medicine? provides the platform for bringing advances in natural science into health application and medical knowledge. The main target of the Cellular Medicine approach is optimizing cellular metabolism and bringing it back into balance by applying nutrients that work in a synergistic way

Synergy Research: Vitamins and Secondary Plant Components in the Maintenance of the Redox-Homeostasis and in Cell Signaling

Source: Phytomedicine 2009; 16(1): 2-16

Author: Ulrich-Merzenich G., Zeitler H., Vetter H., Kraft K.

Affiliation: Medizinische Poliklinik der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany

Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during oxidative stress can potentially damage the normal cellular functions and support pathological processes like atherosclerosis in vessels or malignant growth in other tissues, but also the aging process. However, recent findings link ROS also to cell survival and/or proliferation, which revolutionizes the age-old dogmatic view of ROS being exclusively involved in cell damage and death. Low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide are involved in cell signaling and can activate mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK) to initiate cell growth. Nutritional antioxidants like vitamin C or E can promote endothelial cell growth, but can also inhibit growth of muscle cells, and influence MAPK. Thus, keeping the redox-homeostasis in a steady state especially in the context of tissue regeneration appears to be more important than previously known and seems to be a controlled synergistic action of antioxidants and ROS. The present review summarizes the properties and functions of ROS and nutritional antioxidants like the vitamins C and E, and polyphenols in redox-homeostasis. Their relevance in the treatment of various diseases is discussed in the context of a multi-target therapy with nutraceuticals and phytotherapeutic drugs.

Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Vitamin E and Their Combination on Lipid Profiles and Blood Pressure of Iranian Adults with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

Source: Vascular Health and Risk Management 2008; 4(6): 1423-32.

Author: Aryaeian N., Shahram F., Djalali M., Eshragian M.R., Djazayeri A., Sarrafnejad A., Naderi N., Chamari M., Fatehi F., Zarei M.

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving daily supplements for three months. It is concluded that supplementation of CLAs decreased BP and vitamin E decreased CRP. Therefore co-supplementation of CLAs and vitamin E might be profitable for heart disease prevention in RA patients.

Effect of Green Tea and Vitamin E Combination in Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

Source: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 2009; 64(1): 75-80

Author: Upaganlawar A, Gandhi C, Balaraman R.

Affiliation: Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, 390 002, Gujarat, India.

Abstract: The present study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of green tea and vitamin E on heart weight, body weight, serum marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, endogenous antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Adult male albino rats, treated with ISO (200 mg/kg, s.c.) for 2 days at an interval of 24 h caused a significant (P<0.05) elevation of heart weight, serum marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and Ca+2 ATPase level whereas there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in body weight, endogenous antioxidants, Na+/ K+ ATPase and Mg+2 ATPase levels. Administration of green tea (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) together for 30 consecutive days and challenged with ISO on the day 29th and 30th, showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in heart weight, serum marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, Ca+2 ATPase and a significant increase in the body weight, endogenous antioxidants, Na+/K+ ATPase and Mg+2 ATPase when compared with ISO treated group and green tea or vitamin E alone treated groups. These findings indicate the synergistic protective effect of green tea and vitamin E during ISO induced myocardial infarction in rats.

Alpha-Tocopherol and Alpha-Lipoic Acid. An Antioxidant Synergy with Potential for Preventive Medicine

Source: Revista de investigación clínica 2008; 60(1): 58-67

Author: González-Perez O., Moy-Lopez N.A., Guzman-Muniz J.

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Colima.

Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been involved in the induction and progression of damage of many human disorders, such as: heart infarction, cerebral ischemia, diabetic neuropathy, Alzheimer's disease, etc. In several studies, the synergism between alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E has been described and potent antioxidant effects can be obtained when both antioxidants are simultaneously used. This review highlights recent findings showing that the combination of alpha-lipoic acid plus vitamin E effectively reduces oxidative damage in brain and cardiac ischemia as well as in other pathological events related to ROS increasing. These antioxidants are present in a broad variety of foods, are also available in several dietary supplements and their side effects are very rare. Therefore, alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E may play an important role in clinical preventive medicine and human nutrition.

Intake of Folate, Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 and the Risk of CHD: the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Cohort I

Source: Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2008; 27(1): 127-136

Author: Junko Ishihara, PhD, Hiroyasu Iso, MD, Manami Inoue, MD, Motoki Iwasaki, MD, Katsutoshi Okada, MD, Yoshikuni Kita, PhD, Yoshihiro Kokubo, MD, Akira Okayama, MD, Shoichiro Tsugane, MD for the JPHC Study Group

Affiliation: Department of Public Health Medicine, Doctoral Program in Social and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the association of dietary folate, vitamin B6 (VB6) and vitamin B12 (VB12) with the risk of coronary heart disease among middle-aged persons. A total of 40,803 subjects aged 40?59 years living in the community who were free of prior diagnoses of cardiovascular disease and cancer and who completed a food frequency questionnaire were followed from 1990?1992 to the end of 2001 in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. After 468,472 person-years of follow-up, 251 coronary heart disease incidents were documented. Coronary heart disease and definite myocardial infarction were inversely associated with dietary intake of folate, VB6 and VB12 after adjustment for age and sex, but the associations were attenuated after further adjustment for smoking, dietary and other cardiovascular risk factors. The study concludes that dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease among middle-aged non-multivitamin supplement users. Dietary folate and VB12 were also suggested to be protective factors for coronary heart disease.

Oral Ascorbic Acid in Combination with Beta-Blockers is More Effective than Beta-Blockers Alone in the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

Source: Texas Heart Institute Journal 2007; 34(3): 268-74

Author: Eslami M., Badkoubeh R.S., Mousavi M., Radmehr H., Salehi M., Tavakoli N., Avadi M.R.

Affiliation: Department of Cardiovascular, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14197-33141, Iran

Abstract: Because adrenergic beta antagonists are not sufficient to prevent atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting, this prospective, randomized trial was designed to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid as an adjunct to beta-blockers. Fifty patients formed the ascorbic acid group, and another 50 patients formed the control group. All patients were older than 50 years, were scheduled to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting, and had been treated with beta-blockers for at least 1 week before surgery. The mean age of the population was 60.19+/-7.14 years; 67% of the patients were men. Patients in the ascorbic acid group received 2 g of ascorbic acid on the night before the surgery and 1 g twice daily for 5 days after surgery. Patients in the control group received no ascorbic acid. Patients in both groups continued to receive beta-blockers after surgery. Telemetry monitoring was performed in the intensive care unit, and Holter monitoring was performed for 4 days thereafter. The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was 4% in the ascorbic acid group and 26% in the control group (odds ratio, 0.119; 95% confidence interval, 0.025-0.558, P = 0.002). The study concludes that ascorbic acid is effective, in addition to being well-tolerated and relatively safe. Therefore, it can be prescribed as an adjunct to beta-blockers for the prophylaxis of post-bypass atrial fibrillation. This confirms earlier findings of the double-blind placebo controlled study conducted by the Dr Rath Research Institute. This clinical study demonstrated that a specific synergy of micronutrients used as an adjunct to conventional treatment provides significant improvements in decreasing frequency, severity and improving life quality of arrhythmia patients.

Effect of Combined Treatment with Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Acetyl-L-carnitine on Vascular Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Source: Journal of Clinical Hypertension 2007; 9(4): 249-55

Author: McMackin C.J., Widlansky M.E., Hamburg N.M., Huang A.L., Weller S., Holbrook M., Gokce N., Hagen T.M., Keaney J.F. Jr, Vita J.A.

Affiliation: Evans Department of Medicine and Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA

Abstract: In a double-blind crossover study, the authors examined the effects of combined alpha-lipoic acid/acetyl-L-carnitine treatment and placebo (8 weeks per treatment) on vasodilator function and blood pressure in 36 subjects with coronary artery disease. Active treatment increased brachial artery diameter by 2.3% (P=.008), consistent with reduced arterial tone. Active treatment tended to decrease systolic blood pressure for the whole group (P=.07) and had a significant effect in the subgroup with blood pressure above the median (151+/-20 to 142+/-18 mm Hg; P=.03) and in the subgroup with the metabolic syndrome (139+/-21 to 130+/-18 mm Hg; P=.03). Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to the regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the clinical utility of alpha-lipoic acid/acetyl-L-carnitine as antihypertensive therapy.

Intake of Fish oil, Oleic Acid, Folic Acid, and Vitamins B-6 and E for 1 Year Decreases Plasma C-Reactive Protein and Reduces Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Male Patients in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

Source: The Journal of Nutrition 2007; 137(2): 384-390

Author: Carrero J.J., Fonolla J., Marti J.L., Jimenez J., Boza J.J., Lopez-Huertas E.

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Granada, and Service of Cardiology, University San Cecilio Hospital, Granada, Spain

Abstract: Certain nutrients have been shown to be effective in preventing coronary heart disease. This study hypothesized that a daily intake of low amounts of a number of these nutrients would exert beneficial effects on risk factors and clinical variables in patients that suffered from myocardial infarction (MI) and were following a cardiac rehabilitation program. Forty male MI patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The supplemented group consumed 500 mL/d of a fortified dairy product containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins A, B-6, D, and E. The control group consumed 500 mL/d of semi-skimmed milk with added vitamins A and D. The study shows that plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin E increased after supplementation (P<0.05). Plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations decreased in the supplemented group (P<0.05), and plasma total homocysteine decreased in both groups. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, effected through a CR program comprising regular exercise and the intake of a combination of dietary nutrients, reduced a variety of risk factors in MI patients, which supports the rationale for nutritional programs in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

Flavonoids From Almond Skins are Bioavailable and Act Synergistically with Vitamins C and E to Enhance Hamster and Human LDL Resistance to Oxidation

Source: The Journal of Nutrition 2005; 135(6): 1366-1373

Author: Chen C.Y., Milbury P.E., Lapsley K., Blumberg J.B.

Affiliation: Antioxidants Research Laboratory, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University

Abstract: Consumption of tree nuts such as almonds has been associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin of almonds, may contribute to their putative health benefit, but their bioactivity and bioavailability have not previously been studied. Almond skin flavonoids (ASF) bioactivity was assessed in vitro by their capacity to increase the resistance of human LDL to oxidation induced by 10 micromol/L Cu2+. Combining ASF with vitamin E or ascorbic acid extended the lag time >200% of the expected additive value (P < or = 0.05). The bioavailability and in vivo antioxidant activity of 40 micromol ASF were examined in BioF1B hamsters. Peak plasma concentrations of catechin, epicatechin, and flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) occurred at 60, 120, and 180 min, respectively. The concentration of isorhamnetin was significantly elevated in liver at 180 min. Absorbed ASF enhanced the ex vivo resistance of hamster LDL collected at 60 min to oxidation by 18.0% (P = 0.028), and the in vitro addition of 5.5 micromol/L vitamin E synergistically extended the lag time of the 60-min sample by 52.5% (P < or = 0.05). Thus, ASF possess antioxidant capacity in vitro; they are bioavailable and act in synergy with vitamins C and E to protect LDL against oxidation in hamsters.

Ubiquinol supplementation enhances peak power production in trained athletes: a double-blind, placebo controlled study.


Author: Alf D, Schmidt ME, Siebrecht SC.

Affiliation: Olympiastützpunkt Rhein – Ruhr, Essen 45131, Germany, Biostatistics, Planegg 82152, Germany, Health Ingredient Consultant, Schwelm 58332, Germany

Abstract: The aim was to investigate the effect of Ubiquinol supplementation on physical performance measured as maximum power output in young and healthy elite trained athletes. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 100 young German well trained athletes received either 300 mg Ubiquinol or placebo for 6 weeks. Athletes had to perform a maximum power output test and the performance in W/kg of bodyweight was measured at the 4 mmol lactate threshold on a cycling ergometer before the supplementation treatment (T1), after 3 weeks (T2) and after 6 weeks (T3) of treatment. In these 6 weeks all athletes trained individually in preparation for the Olympic Games in London 2012. The maximum power output was measured in Watt/kilogram body weight (W/kg bw). Both groups, placebo and Ubiquinol, significantly increased their physical performance measured as maximum power output over the treatment period from T1 to T3. The absolute difference in the enhancement of the physical performance between the placebo and the Ubiquinol group of +0.08 W/kg bodyweight was significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that daily supplementation of 300 mg Ubiquinol for 6 weeks significantly enhanced physical performance measured as maximum power output by +0.08 W/kg bw (+2.5%) versus placebo in young healthy trained German Olympic athletes. While adherence to a training regimen itself resulted in an improvement in peak power output, as observed by improvement in placebo, the effect of Ubiquinol supplementation significantly enhanced peak power production in comparison to placebo.

The effect of dietary supplements on the quality of life of retired professional football players.


Author: Sinnott R, Maddela RL, Bae S, Best T.

Affiliation: Mannatech Incorporated, Coppell, USA.

Abstract: Professional football players may experience negative health consequences when they retire such as chronic pain, cognitive problems as well as other consequences of sports-related injuries. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with multiple nutrients on the quality of life of retired football players. Fifteen retired players received daily supplementation of fish oil with cholecalciferol, antioxidants, natural vitamins and minerals, polysaccharides and phytosterol-amino acid complex for 6 months. Using an open-labeled repeated measures design, volunteers completed self-report assessment measures at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Outcome measures were CDC HRQOL-4, WHOQOL-BREF, POMS, MFQ and pain self-assessment. General health rating improvement on CDC HRQOL-4 from month 1 was sustained to month 6. Mental health days improved at 6 months. WHOQOL-BREF showed increased health satisfaction at all measurement points and the Physical and Psychological Domain Scores at 6 months. MFQ General Rating of Memory improved at 3 and 6 months. Vigor scale in POMS was significant at 3 months. Decreased pain was noted only for the elbow at month 1 and the knee at month 3. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Results of this study offer preliminary insight into using dietary supplements to support and optimize quality of life in retired football players. Further research using a placebo-controlled design is needed to characterize the potential benefit to physical and psychological well-being of multiple dietary supplementations for this cohort.


Effects of an Oral Administration of Glucosamine-Chondroitin-Quercetin Glucoside on the Synovial Fluid Properties in Patients with Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, Biochemistry 2009; 73(2): 288-292

Author: Matsuno H., Nakamura H., Katayama K., Hayashi S., Kano S., Yudoh K., Kiso Y.

Affiliation: Matsuno Clinic for Rheumatic Diseases, Toyama, Japan.

Abstract: The effects of an orally administered combination of a glucosamine-chondroitin-quercetin glucoside (GCQG) supplement on the synovial fluid properties of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were investigated from the clinical nutrition view point. In this study, forty-six OA and twenty-two RA patients were administered with the GCQG supplement orally for 3 months. Several parameters of the knee joints were monitored before and after supplementation. The OA patients showed a significant improvement in pain symptoms, daily activities (walking and climbing up and down stairs), and visual analogue scale, and changes in the synovial fluid properties with respect to the protein concentration, molecular size of hyaluronic acid, and chondroitin 6-sulphate concentration were also observed. However, no such effects were observed in the RA patients. These results suggest that the GCQG supplement exerted a special effect on improving the synovial fluid properties in OA patients.

Glucosamine/Chondroitin/Primorine Combination Therapy for Osteoarthritis

Source: Drugs of Today 2009; 45(1): 21-31

Author: Fox B.A., Stephens M.M.

Affiliation: East Tennessee State University, Family Physicians of Kingsport, Tennessee 37660, USA

Abstract: Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have been evaluated in many studies as agents to relieve pain, improve functional activity, and slow disease progression in OA especially of the hip and knee. Primorine is a combination of products thought to alter these biochemical oxidative byproducts. Based on current evidence, the use of a combination product of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate seems to have the greatest potential as a therapeutic intervention for patients at increased risk from the adverse events of accepted current oral therapies. The use of primorine and its combination of products as an intervention in OA has theoretical advantages but its benefits are unproven. A new product, relamine, is a combination of these three formulations. While no studies have evaluated glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and primorine in a single product, it may be an option for those who wish to try an alternate therapy for OA, as there appears to be a low risk for serious adverse events.

Multivitamin Supplementation [Not an Application of a Single Nutrient] Improves Nutritional Status and Bone Quality in Aged Care Residents

Source: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; 63(4): 558-565

Author: Grieger JA, Nowson CA, Jarman HF, Malon R, Ackland LM

Affiliation: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia

Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multivitamin (MV) tablet on nutritional status, quantitative heel ultrasound (QUS), mobility, muscle strength and falls. The design comprised two groups matched on mobility levels, randomized to receive a daily MV or placebo (P) tablet for 6 months. A total of 92 aged care residents participated in the study. The setting was an Australian residential care facility. Serum micronutrients, body weight, QUS, rate of falls, hand grip strength, and the timed up and go test were assessed at baseline and 6 months. A total of 49 participants consumed a MV and 43, a matched P for 6 months. The study concludes that MV supplementation raised serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations and increased serum 25(OH)D, which was accompanied by an apparent positive effect on bone density. The study also found a trend towards a reduction in falls and this could contribute to a reduction in fractures.

Effect of Dietary B Vitamins on BMD and Risk of Fracture in Elderly Men and Women: the Rotterdam Study

Source: Bone 2007; 41(6): 987-994

Author: Yazdanpanah N., Zillikens M.C., Rivadeneira F., de Jong R., Lindemans J., Uitterlinden A.G., Pols H.A., van Meurs J.B.

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Abstract: A mildly elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level is a novel and potentially modifiable risk factor for age-related osteoporotic fractures. Elevated Hcy levels can have a nutritional cause, such as inadequate intake of folate, riboflavin, pyridoxine or cobalamin, which serve as cofactors or substrates for the enzymes involved in the Hcy metabolism. This study examined the association between intake of Hcy-related B vitamin (riboflavin, pyridoxine, folate and cobalamin) and femoral neck bone mineral density BMD (FN-BMD) and the risk of fracture in a large population-based cohort of elderly Caucasians. The study involved 5304 individuals aged 55 years and over from the Rotterdam Study. Dietary intake of nutrients was obtained from food frequency questionnaires. The study concludes that increased dietary riboflavin and pyridoxine intake was associated with higher FN-BMD. Furthermore, the study found a reduction in risk of fracture in relation to dietary pyridoxine intake was independent of BMD. These findings highlight the importance of considering nutritional factors in epidemiological studies of osteoporosis and fractures.


A Combination of Micronutrients is Beneficial in Reducing the Incidence of Prostate Cancer and Increasing Survival in the Lady Transgenic Model

Source: Cancer Prevention Research 2009; 2(5): 473-483

Author: Venkateswaran V., Klotz L.H., Ramani M., Sugar L.M., Jacob L.E., Nam R.K., Fleshner N.E.

Affiliation: Division of Urology, S-118B, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract: The previous study showed that administration of a combination of micronutrients (selenium, vitamin E, and lycopene) inhibits prostate cancer (PCa) development in the Lady transgenic model. The present study has examined timing of initiation of micronutrients, and the effect of micronutrient combinations, on PCa development in Lady transgenic model. Transgenic males were randomized to either a control diet; control diet supplemented with human equivalent doses of vitamin E, selenium, and lycopene (E+S+L); or control diet supplemented with vitamin E and selenium (E+S). In separate experiments, the combination of E+S+L was initiated at varying time points (4, 8, 20, and 36 weeks of age). A combination of E+S+L resulted in a significant reduction in PCa and liver metastasis when intervention was commenced within 8 weeks of age (P < 0.0001). Early commencement of micronutrients (E+S+L) is beneficial in reducing PCa. Lycopene is an essential component of the combination and effective (when used with E+S) for PCa prevention. These observations provide support for their chemopreventive effect and some clues about their mechanism of action. These key findings will be complementary to the outcome from the Selenium and Vitamin E Chemoprevention Trial.

Use of Antioxidant Supplements During Breast Cancer Treatment: A Comprehensive Review

Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2009; 115(3): 437-452

Author: Greenlee H., Hershman D.L., Jacobson J.S.

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th St., 7th Floor, New York, NY 10032, USA

Abstract: This study is a comprehensive review of literature on the associations between antioxidant supplement use during breast cancer treatment and patient outcomes. Inclusion criteria were: two or more subjects; clinical trial or observational study design; use of antioxidant supplements (vitamin C, vitamin E, antioxidant combinations, multivitamins, glutamine, glutathione, melatonin, or soy isoflavones) during chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or hormonal therapy for breast cancer as exposures; treatment toxicities, tumor response, recurrence, or survival as outcomes. The study identified 22 articles that met those criteria. A few studies suggested that antioxidant supplements might decrease side effects associated with treatment, including vitamin E for hot flashes due to hormonal therapy and glutamine for oral mucositis during chemotherapy. Underpowered trials suggest that melatonin may enhance tumor response during treatment. Thus, well designed clinical trials and observational studies are needed to determine the short- and long-term effects of such agents.

Dietary Intake of Selected B Vitamins [Not a Single Nutrient] in Relation to Risk of Major Cancers in Women

Source: British Journal of Cancer 2008; 99(5): 816-821

Author: Kabat G.C., Miller A.B., Jain M., Rohan T.E.

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, NY 10461, USA

Abstract: Although folic acid has been investigated for its potential to inhibit carcinogenesis, few epidemiologic studies have assessed the effects of intake of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin, which may reduce cancer risk by acting as cofactors in folate metabolism or by other mechanisms. Using data from a large cohort of Canadian women, this study examined the association of dietary intake of these nutrients, as well as intake of folate, methionine, and alcohol, with cancers of the breast, endometrium, ovary, colorectum, and lung ascertained during an average of 16.4 years of follow-up. Few significant associations of intake of individual B vitamins with the five cancers were observed.

Dietary Soy and Tea Combinations for Prevention of Breast and Prostate Cancers by Targeting Metabolic Syndrome Elements in Mice

Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; 86(3): s882-s888

Author: Zhou J.R., Li L, Pan W

Affiliation: Nutrition and Metabolism Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of soy and tea components, alone and in combination, on abdominal adipose mass and serum concentrations of adipokines, growth factors, and sex hormones in male and female mice. Male and female FVB/N mice were treated with soy, tea components, or both. Whole teas, but not the tea polyphenol extracts, significantly reduced abdominal white adipose tissue by 43-60% in female mice and by 65-70% in male mice. The combination of soy phytochemical concentrate and green tea reduced serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations in both male and female mice in a synergistic manner. The soy phytochemical concentrate and tea combinations reduced serum estrogen concentrations in female mice in a synergistic manner. Soy phytochemical concentrate and teas also significantly reduced serum leptin concentrations in both male and female mice and testosterone concentrations in male mice. Further research is warranted to investigate whether soy and tea combinations may prevent breast or prostate cancer in a synergistic manner in part by alleviating metabolic disorders.

Eye Disorders

Effects of Multivitamin/Mineral Supplementation on Plasma Levels of Nutrients. Report No. 4 of the Italian-American Clinical Trial of Nutritional Supplements and Age-Related Cataract

Source: Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanitŕ 2009; 45(2): 119-127

Author: Maraini G., Williams S.L., Sperduto R.D., Ferris F.L., Milton R.C., Clemons T.E., Rosmini F., Ferrigno L

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze, Otorino-Odonto-Oftalmologiche e Cervico Facciali, Universitŕ degli Studi, Parma, Italy

Abstract: The use of multivitamin-mineral supplements has become increasingly common, but whether the use of such supplements improves micronutrient status remains still unclear. The objective of this report was to investigate how a long-term vitamin-mineral supplementation following the US Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) affected the plasma levels of selected nutrients in a subset (No. = 407) of participants in the Italian-American Clinical Trial of Nutritional Supplements and Age-related Cataract (CTNS). The CTNS was a double-blind, single centre, controlled clinical trial of 1020 participants aged 55-75 years randomized to a daily tablet of Centrum(R) or placebo. Participants assigned to Centrum(R) showed a significant increase (p < 0.005) in mean/median plasma levels of vitamin E, beta-carotene, folate, and vitamin B12, and an improved riboflavin status when compared with participants assigned to placebo. In the treated group the effect of supplementation on plasma levels of vitamins A, E, and C, and on the glutathione reductase activation coefficient was significantly higher in participants with lower nutritional status at baseline.

Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization with a Nutrient Mixture Containing Lysine, Proline, Ascorbic Acid, and Green Tea Extract

Source: Archives of Medical Research 2007; 38(7): 789-791

Author: Shakiba Y., Mostafaie A.

Affiliation: Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

Abstract: The data supporting a causal role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extensive. Inhibition of VEGF and MMPs is a main strategy for treating corneal neovascularization. Several findings have shown that corneal neovascularization can be reduced by using anti-VEGF and anti-MMPs agents. Efficacy of a nutrient mixture (NM) containing lysine, proline, ascorbic acid, and green tea extract has been demonstrated for reducing VEGF and MMPs secretion by various cells. Moreover, NM can inhibit endothelial cell migration and capillary tube formation. We herein note that topical application of NM is potentially useful for inhibiting corneal neovascularization and restoration of corneal clarity. Further investigations in animal models are needed to place NM alongside corneal neovascularization therapeutics.