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Online Library: Cognitive improvement

A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

Source: J Med Food. 2011;14(4):334-343

Author: Park SK, Jung IC, et al.

Affiliation: LG Household and Health Care Co., Ltd., Daejeon, Korea.

Abstract: A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine (LGNC-07) has been reported to have beneficial effects on cognition in animal studies. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of LGNC-07 on memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was investigated. Brain theta waves, an indicator of cognitive alertness, were increased significantly in the temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital areas after 3 hours in the eye-open and reading states. Therefore, this study suggests that LGNC-07 has potential as an intervention for cognitive improvement.

Coenzyme Q10 and cognition in atorvastatin treated dogs

Source: Neuroscience letters 2011 July 8; [Epub ahead of print]

Author: Martin SB, Cenini G, et al

Affiliation: Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky,USA.

Abstract: In a placebo-controlled study involving 6 aged beagles (>8 years) who were treated with 80 mg/d atorvastatin (a statin drug) for 14.5 months, serum coenzyme Q10 levels were found to be lower in statin-treated drugs, as compared to those treated with a placebo. Moreover poorer cognition was found to be associated with lower levels of coenzyme Q10 in the lower parietal cortex. The authors conclude, "CoQ10 levels in brain may [be] linked to impaired cognition in response to atorvastatin, in agreement with previous reports that statins may have a negative impact on cognition in the elderly."

French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial

Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011 July 20; [Epub ahead of print]

Author: Kesse-Guyot E, Fezeu L, et al.

Affiliation: Unité de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, U557 Institut National de la Santeacute et de la Recherche Meacutedicale, France.

Abstract: In a study involving 4,447 French subjects between the ages of 45 and 60 years, who had previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (1994-2002) in which they received daily supplementation with vitamin C (120 mg), beta-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 micrograms), and zinc (20 mg), or a placebo, cognitive performance assessments performed in 2007-2009 revealed that subjects who received antioxidant supplementation had better episodic memory scores (mean difference: 0.61), specifically verbal memory and executive functioning. Verbal memory improved only in those taking antioxidants who were nonsmokers or had low vitamin C at baseline. The authors state, "This study supports the role of an adequate antioxidant nutrient status in the preservation of verbal memory under certain conditions."

Vitamin B12, cognition, and brain MRI measures: a cross-sectional examination.

Source: Neurology 2011; 77(13):1276-82.

Author: Tangney CC, Aggarwal NT, Li H, Wilson RS, Decarli C, Evans DA, Morris MC.

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Nutrition, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, USA.

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the interrelations of serum vitamin B12 markers with brain volumes, cerebral infarcts, and performance in different cognitive domains in a biracial population sample cross-sectionally. In 121 community-dwelling participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project, serum markers of vitamin B12 status were related to summary measures of neuropsychological tests of 5 cognitive domains and brain MRI measures obtained on average 4.6 years later among 121 older adults. Concentrations of all vitamin B12-related markers, but not serum vitamin B12 itself, were associated with global cognitive function and with total brain volume. Methylmalonate levels were associated with poorer episodic memory and perceptual speed, and cystathionine and 2-methylcitrate with poorer episodic and semantic memory. Homocysteine concentrations were associated with decreased total brain volume. The homocysteine-global cognition effect was modified and no longer statistically significant with adjustment for white matter volume or cerebral infarcts. The methylmalonate-global cognition effect was modified and no longer significant with adjustment for total brain volume. Conclusion: Methylmalonate, a specific marker of B12 deficiency, may affect cognition by reducing total brain volume whereas the effect of homocysteine (nonspecific to vitamin B12 deficiency) on cognitive performance may be mediated through increased white matter hyperintensity and cerebral infarcts. Vitamin B12 status may affect the brain through multiple mechanisms.

A prospective study of diet quality and mental health in adolescents.

Source: PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24805.

Author: Jacka FN, Kremer PJ, Berk M, de Silva-Sanigorski AM, Moodie M, Leslie ER, Pasco JA, Swinburn BA.

Affiliation: Barwon Psychiatric Research Unit, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Abstract: A number of cross-sectional and prospective studies have now been published demonstrating inverse relationships between diet quality and the common mental disorders in adults. However, there are no existing prospective studies of this association in adolescents, the onset period of most disorders, limiting inferences regarding possible causal relationships. In this study, 3040 Australian adolescents, aged 11-18 years at baseline, were measured in 2005-6 and 2007-8. Information on diet and mental health was collected by self-report and anthropometric data by trained researchers. There were cross-sectional, dose response relationships identified between measures of both healthy (positive) and unhealthy (inverse) diets and scores on the emotional subscale of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), where higher scores mean better mental health, before and after adjustments for age, gender, socio-economic status, dieting behaviours, body mass index and physical activity. Higher healthy diet scores at baseline also predicted higher PedsQL scores at follow-up, while higher unhealthy diet scores at baseline predicted lower PedsQL scores at follow-up. Improvements in diet quality were mirrored by improvements in mental health over the follow-up period, while deteriorating diet quality was associated with poorer psychological functioning. Finally, results did not support the reverse causality hypothesis. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of diet in adolescence and its potential role in modifying mental health over the life course. Given that the majority of common mental health problems first manifest in adolescence, intervention studies are now required to test the effectiveness of preventing the common mental disorders through dietary modification.

Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms—the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial

Source: The American journal of clinical nutrition 2012; 95(1) :194-203

Author: Walker JG, Batterman PhJ, Mackinnon AJ, et al

Affiliation: Centre for Mental Health Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, ORYGEN Youth Health and The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Abstract: Evidence remains unclear as to whether folic acid (FA) and vitamin B-12 supplementation is effective in reducing depressive symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine whether oral FA + vitamin B-12 supplementation prevented cognitive decline in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults with elevated psychological distress. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a completely crossed 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design comprising daily oral 400 µg FA + 100 µg vitamin B-12 supplementation (compared with placebo), physical activity promotion, and depression literacy with comparator control interventions for reducing depressive symptoms was conducted in 900 adults aged 60–74 y with elevated psychological distress. The 2-y intervention was delivered in 10 modules via mail with concurrent telephone tracking calls. Main outcome measures examined change in cognitive functioning at 12 and 24 mo by using the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status–Modified (TICS-M) and the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (processing speed); the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly was administered at 24 mo. FA + vitamin B-12 improved the TICS-M total, TICS-M immediate, and TICS-M delayed recall scores at 24 mo in comparison with placebo. No significant changes were evident in orientation, attention, semantic memory, processing speed, or informant reports. Conclusion: Long-term supplementation of daily oral 400 µg FA + 100 µg vitamin B-12 promotes improvement in cognitive functioning after 24 mo, particularly in immediate and delayed memory performance.

Pycnogenol supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students.

Source: Panminerva medica 2011; 53(3 Suppl 1):75-82.

Author: Luzzi R, Belcaro G, Zulli C, Cesarone MR, Cornelli U, Dugall M, Hosoi M, Feragalli B.

Affiliation: Irvine3 Labs, Department of Biomedical Sciences Chieti - Pescara University, Italy.

Abstract: This study compared the effects of supplementation with Pycnogenol® on cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students with an 8 week, evaluation study. Pycnogenol® was used in healthy students; the supplement was used with the aim of enhancing "normal" mental performances. Attention, memory, evaluation of executive functions were included and students were also evaluated - in the 8-week study - according to results of the university tests. Fifty-three students (range 18-27 years) were included and Pycnogenol® was administered for 8 weeks. A group of equivalent students were followed up as a control group. In the 8-week study Pycnogenol® supplementation improved sustained attention, memory, executive functions and mood ratings in the students. The improvement was statistically significant. The actual performance on real tests was measured in students undergoing university examinations. The controls failed 9 tests out a total of 84 (10.71%). In the Pycnogenol® group the students failed 7 tests out of 112 (6.25%) with a difference of 4.46% of failures in the Pycnogenol® group that performed, statistically, generally better. The average test score measured by the marks obtained was 23.81 (1.1) in controls vs. 26.1(1.3) (P<0.024) in the Pycnogenol® group (+2.29 equivalent to 7.6%). Conclusion: This study indicates a role for Pycnogenol® to improve cognitive function in normal students.

The role of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing lipid peroxidation among elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment: a case-control study.

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22898566

Author: Lee LK, Shahar S, Rajab N, Yusoff NA, Jamal RA, Then SM.

Affiliation: Nutrition Science Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia.

Abstract: The present work explores the effect of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake on lipid peroxidation among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. The plasma lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels in 67 MCI patients were compared to those of 134 healthy elderly controls. Omega-3 PUFA intake was assessed using an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Apolipoprotein E genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion. The association between various confounders and lipid peroxidation was evaluated using regression analysis. The influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) intake on LPO level was investigated. The results revealed that LPO levels were significantly higher in the MCI group than in the control group. Inverse correlations were found between DHA and EPA intake and LPO level among the MCI group. LPO levels decreased significantly with increasing DHA and EPA intake. In summary, the findings revealed that DHA and EPA can play a role in alleviating oxidative stress and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases.